To analyze your data on a geospatial reference, you first need to associate a geospatial dimension to your original data points, aka geo-reference. Geoprocessing techniques then bifurcates according to the two major categories on geospatial data: vector and raster. Vector data analysis are mostly computational geometry, while raster data analysis are mostly computational algebra.
Geocoding is the process of matching/mapping an address to its latitude and longitude, useful for standardizing location information. Reverse geocoding the inverse mapping of geocoding.
Software: Google Maps
Vector data analysis are mostly computational geometry. But geometric calculations such as containment (point-in-polygon), connectivity, adjacency, partition, boundary, and network tracking are computationally intensive. For this reason, Combinatorial structures known as simplicial complex (topological complex) are constructed to convert computational geometry algorithms into combinatorial algorithms.
Other vector data analytics include: Network Analysis, Spatial statistics (spatial correlation, histogram)
Data structure: static (fixed geometries), dynamic (incrementally changing geometries).
Spatial query is a special type of database query (SQL).
Spatial operations generate new geometries from existing ones.
Dimensionally Extended nine-Intersection Model, aka DE-9IM,
describes the topological relations of two geometries in a plane.
E for interior, boundary and exterior,
dim for maximum dimension of a geometry, DE-9IM is defined as:
⎡ dim(I(a)∩I(b)) dim(I(a)∩B(b)) dim(I(a)∩E(b)) ⎤ DE9IM(a,b) = ⎢ dim(B(a)∩I(b)) dim(B(a)∩B(b)) dim(B(a)∩E(b)) ⎥ ⎣ dim(E(a)∩I(b)) dim(E(a)∩B(b)) dim(E(a)∩E(b)) ⎦
A spatial predicate is a test based on the DE-9IM. There are 10 relations that have a common name reflecting their semantics:
† "Within" is sometimes known as "inside"; and "touches" as "meets".
Raster data analysis are mostly image processing (computational algebra).
Aligning geographic data to a known coordinate system so it can be viewed, queried, and analyzed with other geographic data.
Imagery (e.g. Lidar data):
(spline, with tension, etc.)
DEM data are stored in ASCII grids, which is a raster format.